Social and Economic conditions

1. Ethnicity
There are three main ethnic groups in three districts of Pu Mat National Park area is Thai, Kho Mu and Kinh. There are also several other ethnic groups such as Ho Mong, Dan Lai, Poong, O Du, Tay but the numbers are not large. Thai ethnic accounting the largest population (66.89%) and a few O Du people (up 0.6%).
2. Population and labor (to April 2008)
Total population of 16 communes are 16,945 households with 93,235 persons. Most population distribution in seven communes in Con Cuong district (39,419 people, 7167 households) and 5 communes in Anh Son district (38,163 people, 6938 households), the remaining four communes in Tuong Duong district (15,753 people, 2849 households), average per household from 3-6 persons, the increasing population make a big pressure to the forest. Population in the area distributed unevenly among communes, some communes have less population such as Tam Hop in Tuong Duong district (7 persons/km2), Chau Khe commune in Con Cuong  district (13 person/km2). There also are some communes that have big population such as Dinh Son (495 person/km2), Cam Son (421 person/km2) in Anh Son district.
The uneven distribution of the population causing labor force distribution is uneven and concentrated mainly in the lowland communes in Anh Son district. Workforces locally are very potential, but the structure of the vocations in the region is very monotonous. Most of the activities are production of forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry and a few people working in other areas such as Health, Education, Services. The surplus of labor, poor living standard leading local people to exploit forest products  from the Pu Mat National Park.
Forestry production
Forestry programs are implemented such as program no 327 and 661. Presently, Anh Son district has allocated to households to carry out the regeneration, management and protection and planted 2.217ha of forests, Tuong Duong district is 8.305ha, Con Cuong district is 30.280ha.
Work also focuses on reforestation until the current time. Forest area has grown as 2.853ha  in Anh Son district, Con Cuong and Tuong Duong are 3.350ha and 206ha. Besides gathered plantation area, districts also planted millions of scattered trees.
There are three State Forest Enterprise (Con Cuong, Anh Son and Tuong Duong) located in the National Park area. The main functions of these State Forest Enterprise are forest protection, regeneration, forest enrichment and exploitation.
Besides the traditional forestry activities, the State Forest Enterprises are centers for technical services and seedlings for the local people.
Projects support economic development in the areas.
There were the largest program on the forestry in the buffer zone (supported by the Government) area project  No 327,  Project No 661 and Project 327. The project No 327 on the resettlement has been implemented in 3 villages including Co Phat, Khe Con, Ban Bung in Mon Son commune.
The aims of the projects are to stabilize population, planning farms, elimination of poppy plants. There are also other projects such as projects on forest land or entrepreneur, management and protection of forest resources, population stretch;  Ca river projects, Giang river projects funding by Denmark Government, protection and exploitation of paper fibers materials project; projects such as planting fruit trees (orange, labeled, some) projects watershed forest protection and support food; capital projects to support breeding, plant varieties ( rice, corn planting project …); industry (target) in Anh Son district;  the SFNC project in Nghe An province; feasible projects  for construction of Pu Mat National Park.
Activities affect the Pu Mat National Park:
For long ago, the ethnic lives in here based mainly on natural resources. Forest where food supply, food, raw materials, medicinal plants … for the people in the area. Since the Nature Reserve is established, the shifting cultivation activities are no longer exist but mining and forest products exploitation, hunting wild animals are still common. These activities affect forest resources and landscape, including:
– Shifting cultivation caused forest fires.
– Logging, firewood illegally.
– Fishing with mine, electricity, poison the rivers and streams destroyed the environment, destruction of animals aquatic systems. 
– Excessive grazing cattle under foliage.
– The exploitation activities on the forestry products such as aloe wood, bamboo shoots, medicinal plants, honey, ornamental plants.